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Doa pagi dan sore

Ya Allah......, sesungguhnya aku berlindung kepada Engkau dari bingung dan sedih. Aku berlindung kepada Engkau dari lemah dan malas. Aku berlindung kepada Engkau dari pengecut dan kikir. Dan aku berlindung kepada Engkau dari tekanan hutang, pajak, pembuat UU pajak dan kesewenang-wenangan manusia.

Ya Allah......ampunilah aku, ibu bapakku, orang yang masuk ke rumahku dengan beriman dan semua orang yang beriman laki-laki dan perempuan. Dan janganlah Engkau tambahkan bagi orang-orang yang zalim dan para penarik pajak serta pembuat UU pajak selain kebinasaan".

Amiiiiin
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Wednesday, November 26, 2008

MASA MENGERJAKAN HAJI MENURUT QURAN (I)

PENGANTAR
Tulisan ini dipublikasikan dalam rangka menyambut masa berhaji.

Saya akan memulai tulisan ini sebagai layaknya seorang muslim yang hendak mengajukan pendapatnya. Dengan nama Allah yang pemurah dan penyayang. Segala puji bagi Allah, Tuhan sekalian alam. Doa keselamatan dan kesejahteraan bagi nabi Muhammad saw berserta keluarganya.

Kita mulai saja pengantar tulisan ini.

Tulisan ini merupakan riset saya yang sebetulnya sudah selesai tetapi saya masih berpendapat bahwa belum belum banyak yang bisa menerima argumen saya karena tidak banyak orang yang mampu berlogika dalam mengerti ayat Quran. Oleh sebab itu saya masih mencari data historis tentang pelaksanaan haji/umrah yang dilakukan nabi. Lebih spesifik lagi mengenai tanggal dan bulannya. Tujuan riset saya ini semata-mata untuk amal jariah (ilmu yang kalau diamalkan setiap muslim saya akan dapat pahalanya walaupun saya sudah mati). Jadi ini semata-mata untuk bekal saya dan rekan-rekan yang telah ikut bersama melakukan riset ini di hari akhir nanti. Kami tidak punya maksud lain selain yang kami ucapkan di atas. Semoga Allah mengabulkan cita-cita kami.

Kurang lebih 10 tahun lalu, saya dikejutkan oleh pernyataan seorang teman bahwa menurut Quran masa pelaksanaan haji itu adalah selama beberapa bulan. Bukan seperti yang sekarang ini, hanya seminggu dengan puncaknya sehari di Arafah. Terusik oleh pernyataan teman ini saya melakukan riset Quran, ternyata hal ini benar. Telah memenuhi necessary dan sufficient condition untuk mengatakan bahwa masa pelaksanaan haji itu beberapa bulan.

Persoalan yang dihadapi ulama dalam menterjemahkan ayat-ayat Quran menjadi petunjuk praktis ialah nabi saw hanya sekali melakukan haji secara lengkap yaitu di bulan Dzulhijjah. Dan waktu (bulan/hari) dimana nabi melaksanakan ibadah haji inilah yang dikemudian hari dijadikan sebagai masa berhaji, walaupun jelas-jelas Quran mengatakan "beberapa bulan".

Nabi saw pernah melakukan “umrah”, haji yang tidak lengkap atau usaha berumrah tetapi gagal, sebanyak 3 kali. Itu dilakukan di bulan Dzuqaidah dan Dzulhijjah. Kalau dilihat “kegagalan” berhaji ini dikarenakan oleh situasi yang tidak memungkinkan.

Wajar kalau beberapa rekan, termasuk saya bertanya, apa sebenarnya yang menjadikan masa haji demikian sempit (1 minggu) pada hal Quran dengan jelas mengatakan “beberapa bulan yang dimaklumkan”? Apakah dengan sunah nabi saw bisa mempersempit pengertian Quran, kalau tidak mau menganulir pengertian tekstual Quran?

Dari beberapa diskusi dengan pakar agama Islam, mereka mengakui kebenaran argumen kami. Dan banyak dari mereka berkomentar: “Kamu benar tetapi sulit diterima”.

Untuk bisa diterima, mungkin kami harus menunjukkan pada hari/bulan apa saja nabi saw melakukan umrah/haji. Data itu lah yang belum kami miliki karena kesulitan literatur. Andaikata dari pembaca mau menunjukkan kepada kami literatur yang bisa dipercaya tentang masa-masa nabi saw ber”umrah”, kami akan menghargai sekali. Dan ini bisa dijadikan amal jariah anda. Ingat-ingat, usaha anda akan terus membuahkan pahala walaupun anda sudah mati, kalau pengetahuan ini bisa memberikan manfaat bagi orang.banyak.

Kita mulai saja. Maaf kalau tulisan ini dalam bahasa Inggris. Tulisan ini kalau sudah lengkap akan saya kirim ke ulama-ulama di belahan dunia lainnya. Sekali lagi, tulisan ini belum selesai.

PREFACE
It has been my way of life, to follow established rules or religious tradition until something disqualifies the practices and are identified as being not right according to Quran and hadith. When I was a small kid, frogs and mangroove crabs where prescribed as haram food by the society where I lived and grew up. It (the haram tradition for frogs and crabs) was a common tradition among the Moslem in Indonesia and Malaysia. Even today, that tradition has been preserved in some part of Indonesia and in Malaysia. I am not sure if this prohibition was/is a local tradition for Malaysia and Indonesia or it was a common practice by Moslems in some other part of the world. I am also not sure how the Moslem scholars at that time came to a conclusion that frogs and crabs were haram. Are these prohibitions mentioned in the Quran or in the hadith? Until now I am not able to locate those prohibitions in the Quran. I never like eating frogs, but I would not say that frogs are haram, because it would be an invention and restricting our self to access a healthy protein source. Allah teaches us that we should not make haram of those that Allah has made halal for us and we also should not make halal of those that Allah has made haram. In Indonesia, these frog and crab prohibitions have been fading gradually. At least very rare Indonesian Moslem scholars will speak strongly supporting these prohibitions.

A few years ago, a good friend of mine confronted me with the Quranic verses related to hajj. He mentioned that according to Quran, hajj can be performed within several months. He specifically put an emphasis on the plural form of the word months. He referred to the 197th verse of al-Baqarah. While in the current tradition, hajj is conducted within a short period of time in the month of Dzulhijjah. Of course his statement surprised me. I had to admit that being non Arabic speaking, I rarely dug the Quran into very detail unless an incidence like this strikes me.

I spent quite sometime to dig up the Quran, the hadith and the prophet biography. In my research, I also noticed that the word umra and hajj were used interchangeably. Although in current understanding hajj consists of umra plus staying in Mina, jammarat ritual, congregating in Arafah, and animal sacrifice. For the sake of consistency, we are going to use the words umra and hajj with the current meaning. However, for the quotations from hadith and Quran (English translation), we will take as they are.

Readers may find some of the sections in this writing are very short. Indeed, logical arguments for proof are supposed to be short. Explanation and process of elimination could be more lengthy.

This short essay and analysis may not be in agreement with the current perception and practice. I would urge you not to accept this idea, but rather to think and to analyze and draw the conclusions based on your analysis. Let us have a common ground, we obey nobody but Allah. The most important thing for us is to follow what Allah asks regardless we like or do not like, difficult or easy for us and even leading us to death. We should not eliminate the jammarat ritual (or any ritual) just before noon because this ritual put our life in risk if Allah asks us to do so. However, we should not forbid us to do it in the afternoon or night if Allah never forbids us to do so.

I noticed that many fatal accidents happened related to this jammarat this ritual in the past:

1990 Mina Valley 1,426 died in Al-Mu'aysam Tunnel.
1994 Jammarat Bridge - 266 died
1997 Jammarat Bridge - 22 died
1998 Jamarat Bridge – 118 died
2001 Jamarat Bridge – 35 died
2004 Jammarat Bridge – 251 died
2006 Jammarat Bridge – 345 died

An interesting verse in the Quran [10:100]: “No soul can reach the faith (iman), except by the will of Allah, and He will place doubt (or obscurity) on those who do not use their intelligent (aql).” The Quran directs the readers to use the intelligent to seek understanding. Otherwise Allah will not guide to the truth.

Peace and may Allah give His blessing and guidance to us.

Jakarta February 3, 2007 (last edited)


1. SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR MULTI-MONTHS
There one verse in the Quran that provide a sufficient condition for multiple month time-span to perform hajj, i.e.:

Al-Baqarah 197: For Hajj are in the prescribed (ma’lumat) months (ash huruu). If anyone undertakes the duties therein, let there be no obscenity or wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj, and whatever good you do Allah know it.
And take provision for the journey. But the right provision is right conduct. So fear Me, o you that are wise.

It is very clear beyond any doubt that the time widow for performing hajj is several months and it is specifically mentioned in a plural form. This verse provides a sufficient condition for multi-month window to perform hajj, not just one week.


2. NON-ARGUMENT
A. Multi-Months Include Traveling
Many arguments against the multi-month window for performing hajj are considered as insufficient or non-argument. One argument states that the word multi-months should be interpreted as to the time required for the journey from the home country to Mecca in addition to the time for hajj itself.

This is not an argument against multi-month window understanding. Because, the journey to Mecca is not part of the hajj ritual (rukn).

B. Part of the ritual – animal sacrifice on 10, 11 and 12 of Dzulhijjah.
Another argument is that part of the ritual – animal sacrifice – has to be done on 10, 11 and 12 of Dzulhijjah. Therefore, the hajj must be around these days.

This argument will be eliminated by giving an example that prophet pbuh performed animal sacrifice in relation to umra – incomplete hajj, in the month of Dzulhijjah but – Dzulqaidah (see section 5 and 6).


3. STARTING TIME
Al-Baqarah 189: They ask you concerning the new moons (hilal). Say: they are but sign to mark fixed periods of time in (the affair of) men, and for Pilgrimage (Hajj) It is no virtue you enter your houses from the back. It is virtue if you fear Allah. Enter houses through proper doors and fear Allah that you may prosper.

Quran without doubt states that the date for the hajj ritual starts on 1st date of lunar calendar. It is a sufficient condition to determine 1st date of the month of hajj is the starting for the hajj. As to what month, we will discuss in the next section.

4. FOUR SACRED MONTHS
Sacred months are mentioned in Quran. The Arabic word is ‘ash hurul hurum. The Arabic word for sacred is hurum, which is related to the word ihram (the unstitched cloths worn during the hajj and umra) and haram (forbidden). The sacred months were the months when the Arab stopped making tribal war in the past. In these months the Arabs went to Mecca for pilgrimage. So it reasonable to understand that the prescribed month (ash huruu ma’lumat) mentioned in Al-Baqarah 197 is identical to the sacred/forbidden months (‘ash hurul hurum) stated in at Taubah. It could be understood that during the sacred months many people are wearing ihram. The word ihram and hurum are the same root.

In surah at-Taubah it is mentioned about four (4) sacred months, two of them must be Dzulqaidah and Dzulhijjah. Dzulqaidah was the months when prophet pbuh fail to perform pilgrimage and ended up with Hudaibiyah treaty and Dzulhijjah is the month of farewell pilgrimage. Here are the Quranic verses on the sacred months. The rest of the sacred months, Muharram and Rajab are mentioned in hadiths. Here are the Quranic verses mentioning the sacred months.

At-Taubah 1: A declaration of immunity from Allah and his Apostle to those of the Pagans with whom you have contacted mutual alliance:

At-Taubah 2: Go you, then, for four months backwards and forwards (as you will) throughout the land. But you know that you can not frustrate Allah (by falsehood), but Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him.

At-Taubah 3: And an announcement from Allah and His Apostle to the people (assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage, that Allah and His Apostle dissolve (treaty) obligations with pagans (mushirikin). If, then, you repent, it is the best for you. But if you turn away, you know that you can not frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those reject the truth.

At-Taubah 4: (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those pagans (mushrikin) with whom you have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in ought nor anyone aided against you, so fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term. For Allah loves the righteous.

At-Taubah 5: But when the forbidden months (months of Haram, ‘ash hurul hurum ) are past, then fight and slay the pagans wherever you find them and sieze them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every plan (of war). But if they repent and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open they for them. For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

At-Taubah 36: The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year), so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred (‘arba’atun hurum): that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.

According to following sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 419, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said that the four sacred months (haram) are Dzulqaidah, Dzulhijjah, Muharram and Rajab.

Hadith Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 419:
Narrated Abu Bakar: The Prophet said. "(The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the Heavens and the Earths. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dzulqaidah, Dzulhijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumadi-ath-Thaniyah and Sha ban."

According sahih Bukhari and many others, the prophet Muhammad pbuh performed hajj and umra in the months of Dzulqaidah and Dzulhijjah and never in Rajab.

Hadith Bukhari Volume 3, Book 27, Number 6:
Narrated Qatada: I asked Anas how many times the Prophet had performed 'Umra. He replied, "Four times. 1. 'Umra of Hudaibiya in Dzulqaidah when the pagans hindered him; 2. 'Umra in the following year in Dzulqaidah after the peace treaty with them (the pagans); 3. 'Umra from Al-Jr'rana where he distributed the war booty." I think he meant the booty (of the battle) of Hunain. I asked, "How many times did he perform Hajj?" He (Anas) replied, "Once."

Hadith Bukhari Volume 3, Book 27, Number 8:
Narrated Hammam: The Prophet performed four 'Umra (three) in Dzulqaidah except the (one) 'Umra which he performed with his Hajj: His 'Umra from Al-hudaibiya, and the one of the following year, and the one from Al-Jr'rana where he distributed the booty (of the battle) of Hunain, and another 'Umra with his Hajj.
Here some issues in interpreting these two hadiths.

1. The hadith narators, Qatada, Hammam, and Mujahid did not specifyd (mention) in details the prophet (pbuh) intension (was it for hajj or umra?).

2. The details aspects had lost in the conversation. For example, the prophet (pbuh) actually did not complete the umra in the year of Hudaibiya. The hadiths miss this detail. The prophet (pbuh) di only one ritual out of many umra rituals. In the other hand the prophet also did one hajj ritual (out of many), i.e. animal sacrifice.

In conclusion the prophet should have intended to perform hajj for he performed one of hajj ritual, animal sacrifice. For someone intension, it would be difficult to guess unless a thorough analysis of his actions is carried out. And the hadith narators did not seemed to care about it, because it was not their intention to find out the prophet intension (niat).

Hadith Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 555:
Narrated Mujahid: 'Urwa and I entered the Mosque and found 'Abdullah bin 'Umar sitting beside the dwelling place of 'Aisha. 'Urwa asked (Ibn 'Umar), "How many 'Umras did the Prophet perform?" Ibn 'Umar replied, "Four, one of which was in Rajab." Then we heard 'Aisha brushing her teeth whereupon 'Urwa said, "O mother of the believers! Don't you hear what Abu 'Abdur-Rahman is saying? He is saying that the Prophet performed four 'Umra, one of which was in Rajab." 'Aisha said, "The Prophet did not perform any 'Umra but he (i.e. Ibn 'Umar) witnessed it. And he (the Prophet) never did any 'Umra in (the month of) Rajab."

This hadith should not be viewed that hajj cannot be performed in the month of Rajab, just because the Prophet never did. This hadith should be understood as that Urwa seek a confirmation if the prophet (pbuh) performed hajj in the 4th month of hajj, i.e. Rajab. Urwa might not and would not ask this question if Rajab is absolutely not the month when people performed hajj.
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4 comments:

Anang said...

sebelum saya mendiskusikan hal2 yang lain.
Menurut anda jika waktu haji itu cukup longgar, apa gunanya ada aturan tentang tamattu' ? Apa susahnya mengerjakan haji dulu baru umroh, apa untungnya umroh dulu baru haji ?

antoni said...

Imam Semar masih konsisten dengan pendapatnya ...

Imam Semar said...

@Antoni,

Saya hanya mencari ridho Allah saja. Kalau saya benar, maka dapat amal jariah. Kalau salah, dapat pahala karena telah berusaha.

kiev said...

Pak IS,

Sambungannya kapan akan dipost?